On Fringe, a sensory deprivation tank can activate your mental powers and even open a gateway to another universe. But what can floating in a dark warm tank do for you in real life? And why would people even want to do such a thing?
 
The sensory deprivation tank — a temperature-regulated, salt-water filled, soundproof, lightproof tank that can isolate its occupant from numerous forms of sensory input all at once — has gone by many names over the years, but its overall design and purpose have remained largely unchanged: to find out what your brain does when it's shoved into a box all by itself and left alone for a while. Here's the complete lowdown on sensory deprivation tanks.
 
Back in the old days, if you wanted to experience sensory deprivation you wore a blindfold or stuck your fingers in your ears like everybody else. But that all changed in 1954, when neuroscientist John C. Lilly dared to question what would happen if the mind was deprived of as much external stimulus as possible.
 
In the original deprivation tank, you were suspended in 160 gallons of water with everything but the top of your head completely submerged. A nightmarish-looking "black-out" mask, similar to the ones pictured here, supplied you with air and blocked any light from reaching your eyes. The water and air temperature were kept at the same temperature as your skin, roughly 34 degrees celsius.
 
The masks were eventually done away with (apparently people found having their heads wrapped in latex distracting), and the requirement of total submersion along with them; instead, the water was saturated with 800 pounds of Epsom salt, which made the water so dense that you could float with your entire body at or near its surface in spite of its shallow depth.
 
Inside the tank there is no light, and therefore no sense of vision. You experience the kind of quiet that allows you to hear your muscles tense, your heart beat, and your eyelids close. The extreme buoyancy of the water lends your environment an almost zero-gravity quality. The lack of a temperature differential plays with your ability to perceive where your body ends and where the water and air begin.
 
But then what happens? What do people experience while they're in the tank? Can an isolation chamber really transport you to a parallel universe like it does on Fringe?
 
The first man in the tank
 
The answer to every one of these questions (yes, even the one about Fringe) depends on where you look and whom you ask, as the vast majority of available evidence regarding the effects of sensory deprivation tanks exists in the form of personal accounts.
 
But before we can talk about these accounts and the research that may help support them, it would be helpful to gain some understanding of the mind that first conceived of the tank.
 
 
While John C. Lilly is certainly well known for developing the world's first isolation tank, he was by no means a stranger to revolutionary, albeit sometimes strange and uncharted, areas of medical and scientific innovation.
 
Lilly was a pioneer in the field of electronic brain stimulation. He was the first person to map pain and pleasure pathways in the brain. He founded an entire branch of science exploring interspecies communication between humans, dolphins, and whales; conducted extensive experimentation with mind-altering drugs like LSD (personally); and spent prolonged periods of time exploring the nature of human consciousness in the isolation tank.
 
It bears mentioning that Lilly's experiments with interspecies communication, personal LSD use, and sensory deprivation often overlapped.
 
All this is to say that calling John C. Lilly eccentric would be akin to calling the Beatles a popular band – somehow "eccentric" just doesn't do the man justice.
 
What really happens in the tank?
 
Bearing these things in mind, it's safe to say that Lilly is probably the closest that reality has ever come to producing a real-life version of Fringe's Walter Bishop, which brings us back to to the subjects of isolation tank experiences and parallel universes.
 
In Fringe, Walter's sensory deprivation tank serves as a bridge between two alternate realities. Lilly believed that his experiences in the tank could produce a similar effect.
 
Lilly claimed that the sensory deprivation tank allowed him to make contact with creatures from other dimensions, and civilizations far more advanced than our own. He would forever refer to his very first encounter with entities from another dimension as "the first conference of three beings," the details of which are recounted in great detail on Lilly's website and are really worth the read.
 
Lilly's, however, is an experience that others who use tanks have rarely reported.
 
By comparison, characterizations of sensory deprivation like this one by comedian Joe Rogan begin to sound downright grounded — and Rogan's descriptions of hallucinations, heightened levels of introspection, and the sensation that the mind has left the body are actually among the most commonly reported experiences among tank users. Even renowned physicist Richard Feynman described having hallucinations and out-of-body experiences while using sensory depravation chambers.
 
Reports of a heightened sense of introspection and out-of-body experiences by tank users mirror those of people with extensive experience in meditation, and both practices have been linked to decreased alpha waves and increased theta waves in the brain — patterns most typically found in sleeping states.
 
Other investigations have demonstrated that deprivation of even one form of sensory input can have hallucinatory effects. And while there is very little research done today that examines sensory deprivation at the level that it's experienced in an isolation tank, a study conducted in 2009 showed that just 15 minutes of near-total sensory deprivation was enough to trigger vivid hallucinations in many of its test subjects.
 
Having said that, it's worth pointing out that the scientists selected test subjects who scored in either the upper or lower 20th percentile on a test called the "Revised Hallucinations Scale," which basically scores the predisposition of an otherwise healthy person to see things that aren't really there.
 
Not surprisingly, participants selected from the bottom 20% were more likely to report hallucinations.
 
If there's a take-home message from all of this, it's that sensory deprivation tanks are something of a mixed bag. Depending on your proclivity for psychoactive drug use, they can offer anything from a means to achieving relaxation and reflection to a vehicle that can aid you in your travels through time and space. And if you should feel the itch to explore what sensory deprivation might be able to offer you, you can seek out nearby tank centers over at Float Finder.
 
Published in NEWS Archives
Thursday, 26 June 2014 11:29

15 Tips for High Sensitive People

15 TIPS FOR EMPATHS AND HIGHLY SENSITIVE PEOPLE
Empathic ability allows you to read and understand people’s energy. This ability may be genetic, passing from generation to generation.  You may share this ability with a relative, so look at your family tree; does anyone else seem to fit the description? Empaths have the ability to scan another’s energy for thoughts, feelings and possibly for past, present, and future life occurrences. Most empaths are unaware of how this really works, and have accepted that they are sensitive to other people’s energy. The ability to correctly perceive and to some extent mirror the energy of another is a challenge. This gift allows us to steer ourselves through life with added perception. You need to be selective and have coping skills in place, if not you will easily be overwhelmed. These are some excellent methods for coping:

1. Schedule time with you:
Spending time alone creates the space needed to release emotion, energy and stress.

2. Positive Affirmations:
Short messages that train thought patterns. An example: “Let me receive what is in my best and highest good at this time”

3. Shielding:
Placing a protective shield of white light that is around and encasing you in a bubble, remember to make a grounding cord so you don’t float away!

4. Chakra Cleansing and Balancing:
Regular cleaning of the chakras will keep your energy field free of negative or unwanted energy. Re-balance them by bringing in energy that will create alignment and balance.

5. Centering:
Align yourself with spirit and get out of Ego.  Try to live in the moment and whatever emotion comes up express and release it.

6. Stones:
Some people find that crystals and gemstones aid in clearing negative energy and maintaining balance. Choose yours by trying several different stones,and by paying attention to how each feels.

7. Aroma therapy:
Essential oils can enhance well being. Choose what elevates or calms your mood.

8. Forgiveness:
Forgiving others and forgiving self is one of the most powerful tools you have. It will clear your energy and raise your vibrational rate.

9. Grounding:
We have a grounding cord in the root chakra that connects us to the earth. Being aware of this and using this cord to both send negative energy into the earth where it is absorbed and drawing nourishing energy up from the center of the earth will increase your energetic flow.

10. Meditation: 
Quiets the mind so you can center, be present and listen to the voice within.

11. Soothing Sounds:
Relax yourself using music or nature sounds.

12. Animals and Nature:
Being in Nature or spending time with our pets is a great way to relax, clear energy and connect.

13. Smudging: 
The Native Americans have been doing this with great results for years. Burning sage while stating an intention is a great method for clearing energy.

14. Yoga: 
Yoga is effective because it combines breathing, centering and grounding. A wonderful way to raise vibrational energy.

15. Gratitude and intention journal:
Ending the day by writing a list of things you are grateful for and then stating an intention to work towards keeps the energetic flow steady.

Credits: Lynn Zambrano of www.omtimes.com
About the Author:
Lynn Zambrano R.N., has worked professionally as a nurse on a psychiatric crisis unit. While working as a nurse she studied energy healing and further developed her intuitive gifts. As an intuitive life guide she helps others achieve the success they want by breaking through perceived barriers, finding inner wisdom, clarity of mind, and inner strength.
Published in NEWS Archives
When it comes to taking herbs as a form of treatment for illness, it seems the mainstream belief is that they are not as effective and not worth taking. While effectiveness of each herb and their use has not been studied deeply to determine how effective it can be across the population, the same could be said for most pharmaceutical drugs. Much of the time, pharmaceutical drugs attempt to mimic a compound that occurs naturally in nature (herbs) but often bring the risk of side effects.

Safety is one of the most critical areas of review amongst herbs and drugs. So far, zero deaths have been reported due to the use and consumption of herbs. However, pharmaceutical drugs and physician prescribed medications kill approximately one million Americans each year. While it is important to note that herbal medicines can be lethal in extreme doses, it appears their safety is much greater than that of pharmaceutical drugs.
Interestingly, pharmaceutical drugs are actually adding to the world-wide issue of declining health due to their side effects and encouragement of viral resistance. Antibiotics in particular are adding to the wave of increased viral strength when it comes to certain infections. Herbs on the other hand can be a useful tool in fighting infections that have turned into super bugs due to the overuse of antibiotics.

It is always useful to perform as much research as possible, or as you see fit, when it comes to both pharmaceutical drugs and herbs prior to taking them. Just as we would be so skeptical about herbs, we should be just as skeptical about pharmaceutical drugs. Contrary to popular belief, the un-popularity of herbs in western culture is due to scrutinization that comes from pharmaceutical companies and those to can benefit from the sale of pharmaceutical drugs. Herbs cannot be patented and owned, only synthetic drugs can which is why many pharma companies operate the way they do. Seek out the assistance of a Naturopathic doctor before you use herbs.

Below is a list of herbs that can not only boost lung and respiratory health but can also repair it.
Herb information is courtesy of John Summerly who is nutritionist, herbologist, and homeopathic practitioner.

1. Licorice Root
Licorice is one of the more widely consumed herbs in the world. In Traditional Chinese Medicine it occurs in more formulas than any other single herb because it is thought to harmonize the action of all other herbs. Licorice is very soothing and softens the mucous membranes of the throat and especially the lungs and stomach and at the same time cleanses any inflamed mucous membrane that needs immune system support . It reduces the irritation in the throat and yet has an expectorant action. It is the saponins (detergent-like action) that loosen the phlegm in the respiratory tract so that the body can expel the mucus. Compounds within this root help relieve bronchial spasms and block the free radical cells that produce the inflammation and tightening of the air ways. The compounds also have antibacterial and antiviral effects to them as well which helps fight off viral and bacterial strains in the body that can cause lung infections. Glycrrhizins and flavonoids can even help prevent lung cancer cells from forming which means they can even prevent lung cancer.

2. Coltsfoot
Coltsfoot has been traditionally used by Native Americans for thousands of years to strengthen the lungs. It clears out excess mucus from the lungs and bronchial tubes. It soothes the mucus membranes in the lungs, and has been shown in research to assist with asthma, coughs, bronchitis, and other lung ailments. Coltsfoot is available in dried form for tea or as an alcohol extract known as a tincture.

3. Cannabis
The toxic breakdown of therapeutic compounds in cannabis from burning the plant are totally avoided with vaporization. Extraction and inhaling cannabinoid essential oils of the unprocessed plant affords significant mitigation of irritation to the oral cavity that comes from smoking. Cannabis is perhaps one of the most effective anti-cancer plants in the world shown in study after study to stimulate cannabinoid receptor activation in specific genes and mediate the anti-invasive effect of cannabinoids. Vaporizing cannabis allows the active ingredients to stimulate the body’s natural immune response and significantly reduces the ability of infections to spread. Vaporizing cannabis (especially with very high amounts of cannabinoids) opens up airways and sinuses, acting as a bronchodilator. It is even a proven method to treat and reverse asthma.

4. Osha Root
Osha is a herb native to the Rocky Mountain area and has historically been used by the Native Americans for respiratory support. The roots of the plant contain camphor and other compounds which make it one of the best lung-support herbs in America. One of the main benefits of osha root is that it helps increase circulation to the lungs, which makes it easier to take deep breaths. Also, when seasonal sensitivities flare up your sinuses, osha rootm, which is not an actual antihistamine, does produce a similar effect and may be help calm respiratory irritation.

5. Thyme
Thyme is very powerful in the fight against chest congestion. It produces powerful antiseptic essential oils which are classified as naturally antibiotic and anti-fungal. Thyme is well known to zap acne more so than expensive prescription creams, gels and lotions. Thyme tea has the power to chase away and eliminate bacteria and viruses so whether your infection is based on either, it will work. Thyme has been used as a lung remedy consumed since antiquity and is used extensively today to prevent and treat respiratory tract infections and bacterial infection pneumonia.

6. Oregano
Although oregano contains the vitamins and nutrients required by the immune system, its primary benefits are owed to its carvacrol and rosmarinic acid content. Both compounds are natural decongestants and histamine reducers that have direct, positive benefits on the respiratory tract and nasal passage airflow. Oil of oregano fights off the dangerous bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, better than the most common antibiotic treatments. Oregano has so many health benefits that a bottle of organic oregano oil should be in everyone’s medicine cabinet.

7. Lobelia
Did you know that horses given lobelia are able to breathe more deeply? Its benefits are not limited to equestrians. It has been used as “asthmador” in Appalachian folk medicine. Lobelia, by some accounts, is thought to be one of the most valuable herbal remedies in existence. Extracts of Lobelia inflata contain lobeline, which showed positive effects in the treatment of multidrug-resistant tumor cells. Lobelia contains an alkaloid known as lobeline, which thins mucus, breaks up congestion. Additionally, lobelia stimulates the adrenal glands to release epinephrine, in effect, this relaxes the airways and allows for easier breathing. Also, because lobelia helps to relax smooth muscles, it is included in many cough and cold remedies. Lobelia should be part of everyone’s respiratory support protocol!

8. Elecampane
Elecampane has been used by Native Americans for many years to clear out excess mucus that impairs lung function. It is known as a natural antibacterial agent for the lungs, helping to lessen infection particularly for people who are prone to lung infections like bronchitis. Herbal practitioners often recommend one teaspoon of the herb per cup of boiling water, drunk three times daily for two to three weeks. Elecampane is also available in tincture format for ease.

9. Eucalyptus
Native to Australia, eucalyptus isn’t just for Koala bears! Aborigines, Germans, and Americans have all used the refreshing aroma of eucalyptus to promote respiratory health and soothe throat irritation. Eucalyptus is a common ingredient in cough lozenges and syrups and its effectiveness is due to a compound called cineole. Cineole has numerous benefits — it’s an expectorant, can ease a cough, fights congestion, and soothes irritated sinus passages. As an added bonus, because eucalyptus contains antioxidants, it supports the immune system during a cold or other illness.

10. Mullein
Both the flowers and the leaves of the mullein plant are used to make an herbal extract that helps strengthen the lungs. Mullein is used by herbal practitioners to clear excess mucus from the lungs, cleanse the bronchial tubes, and reduce inflammation that is present in the respiratory tract. A tea can be made from one teaspoon of the dried herb to one cup of boiled water. Alternatively, you can take a tincture form of this herb.

11. Lungwort
Lungwort is a tree-growing lichen that actually resembles lung tissue in appearance. However, this natural remedy doesn’t just look the part. As early as the 1600′s, lungwort has been used to promote lung and respiratory health and clear congestion. Pulmonaria selections come in all kinds so seek a herbologist for direction. Lungwort also contains compounds that are powerfully effective against harmful organisms that affect respiratory health.

12. Chaparral
Chaparral, a plant native to the Southwest, has been appreciated by the Native Americans for lung detoxification and respiratory support. Chaparral contains powerful antioxidants that resist irritation and NDGA which is known to fight histamine response. NDGA inhibits aerobic and anaerobic glycolysis (the energy-producing ability) of cancer cells. Chaparral is also a herb that fights harmful organisms. The benefits of chaparral are mostly available in a tincture extraction but chaparral tea may support respiratory problems by encouraging an expectorant action to clear airways of mucus.

13. Sage
Sage’s textured leaves give off a heady aroma, which arises from sage’s essential oils. These oils are the source of the many benefits of sage tea for lung problems and common respiratory ailments. Sage tea is a traditional treatment for sore throats and coughs. The rich aromatic properties arising from sage’s volatile oils of thujone, camphor, terpene and salvene can be put to use by inhaling sage tea’s vapors to dispel lung disorders and sinusitis. Alternatively, brew a strong pot of sage tea and place it into a bowl or a vaporizer.

14. Peppermint
Peppermint, and peppermint oil, contains menthol — a soothing ingredient known to relax the smooth muscles of the respiratory tract and promote free breathing. Dried peppermint typically contains menthol, menthone, menthyl acetate, menthofuran and cineol. Peppermint oil also contains small amounts of many additional compounds including limonene, pulegone, caryophyllene and pinene. Paired with the antihistamine effect of peppermint, menthol is a fantastic decongestant. Many people use therapeutic chest balms and other inhalants that contain menthol to help break up congestion. Additionally, peppermint is an antioxidant and fights harmful organisms.

15. Plantain Leaf
With fruit that is similar in appearance to a banana, plantain leaf has been used for hundreds of years to ease cough and soothe irritated mucous membranes. Many of its active constituents show antibacterial and antimicrobial properties, as well as being anti-inflammatory and antitoxic. Clinical trials have found it favorable against cough, cold, and lung irritation. Plantain leaf has an added bonus in that it may help relieve a dry cough by spawning mucus production in the lungs.
Published in NEWS Archives
Tuesday, 10 June 2014 16:40

Brainwave Frequencies

The frequency bands and wave characteristics are described as follows:

Gamma waves (25-60 Hz) appear to relate to simultaneous processing of information from different brain areas, e.g., involving memory, learning abilities, integrated thoughts or information-rich task processing. Gamma rhythms modulate perception and consciousness, which disappear with anaesthesia. Synchronous activity at about 40 Hz appears involved in binding sensory inputs into the single, unitary objects we perceive.

Beta waves (12-25 Hz) dominate our normal waking state of consciousness when attention is directed towards cognitive tasks and the outside world. Beta is a "fast" activity, present when we are alert or even anxious, or when engaged in problem solving, judgement, decision making, information processing, mental activity and focus. Nobel Prize winner Sir Francis Crick and other scientists believe the 40 Hz beta frequency may be key to the act of cognition.

Alpha waves (7-12 Hz) are present during dreaming and light meditation when the eyes are closed. As more and more neurons are recruited to this frequency, alpha waves cycle globally across the whole cortex. This induces deep relaxation, but not quite meditation. In alpha, we begin to access the wealth of creativity that lies just below our conscious awareness. It is the gateway, the entry point that leads into deeper states of consciousness. Alpha waves aid overall mental coordination, calmness, alertness, inner awareness, mind/body integration and learning.

Alpha is also the home of the window frequency known as the SR, which propagates with little attenuation around the planet. When we intentionally generate alpha waves and go into resonance with that Earth frequency, we naturally feel better, refreshed, in tune, in synch. It is, in fact, environmental synchronization.

Theta waves (4-7 Hz) occur most often in sleep but are also dominant in the deepest states of meditation (body asleep/mind awake) and thought (gateway to learning, memory). In theta, our senses are withdrawn from the external world and focused on the mindscape -- internally originating signals. Theta waves are associated with mystery, an elusive and extraordinary realm we can explore. It is that twilight state which we normally only experience fleetingly as we rise from the depths of delta upon waking or drifting off to sleep. In theta, we are in a waking dream; vivid imagery flashes before the mind's eye and we are receptive to information beyond our normal conscious awareness. Theta meditation increases creativity, enhances learning, reduces stress and awakens intuition and other extrasensory perception skills.

Delta waves (0-4 Hz) are the slowest but highest in amplitude. They are generated in deepest meditation and dreamless sleep. Delta waves confer a suspension of external existence and provide the most profound feelings of peace. In addition, certain frequencies within the delta range trigger the release of a growth hormone which is beneficial for healing and regeneration. This is why sleep, deep restorative sleep, is so essential to the healing process.

Rhythm & Harmonic Resonance
There is a harmonic relationship between the Earth and our mind/body. Earth's low-frequency iso-electric field, the magnetic field of the Earth and the electrostatic field which emerges from our body are closely interwoven. Our internal rhythms interact with external rhythms, affecting our balance, REM patterns, health, and mental focus. SR waves probably help regulate our bodies' internal clocks, affecting sleep/dream patterns, arousal patterns and hormonal secretion (such as melatonin).

The rhythms and pulsations of the human brain mirror those of the resonant properties of the terrestrial cavity, which functions as a waveguide. This natural frequency pulsation is not a fixed number, but an average of global readings, much like the EEG gives an average of brain-wave readings. SR actually fluctuates, like brain waves, due to geographical location, lightning, solar flares, atmospheric ionisation and daily cycles.

The most important slow rhythm is the daily rhythm sensed directly as the change in light. Rhythms connected with the daily rhythm are called circadian (an example is pineal gland melatonin secretion). Some experiments in the absence of natural light have shown that the basic human "clock" is actually slightly longer than one day (24 hours), and closer to one lunar day (24 hours 50 minutes).

On a slower scale, a strong influence on the Earth is its geomagnetic field, which is influenced by the following periods: the Moon's rotation (29.5 days); the Earth's rotation (365.25 days); sunspot cycles (11 or 22 years); the nutation cycle (18.6 years); the rotation of the planets (88 days to 247.7 years); and the galaxy's rotation cycle (250 million years). Very important rhythms, like hormone secretion and dominant nostril exchange, are in the order of 1-2 hours. In the range of human EEG, we have the Sun's electromagnetic oscillation of 10 Hz, while the Earth/ionosphere system is resonant at frequencies in the theta, alpha, beta-1 (low or slow) and beta-2 (high or fast) bands.

Different species often have internal generators of environmental rhythms, which can be extremely precise, up to 10-4. The frequency of these oscillators is then phase-locked-loop (PLL) synchronised with the natural rhythms. Environmental synchronization sources are often called zeitgebers. The mechanism of optical synchronization can be shown. The presented rhythms should inspire a better understanding of the interaction of internal and external rhythms during specific states of consciousness.

The bioelectrical domain is geared to thalamocortical generation of rhythmic activity. In neurofeedback, what is being trained is the degree of rhythmicity of the thalamocortical regulatory circuitry. Rhythmicity manages the entire range of activation and arousal in the bio-electrical domain. One role advocated for rhythmic activity is that of time binding: the need for harnessing brain electrical activity, which is spatially distributed, while maintaining it as a single entity.

Brain waves indicate the arousal dimension, and arousal mediates a number of conditions. Changes in sympathetic and parasympathetic arousal "tune" the nervous system. Underarousal leads towards unipolar or reactive depression, attention deficit disorder, chronic pain and insomnia. Overarousal is linked with anxiety disorders, sleep onset problems, nightmares, hypervigilance, impulsive behaviour, anger/aggression, agitated depression, chronic nerve pain and spasticity. A combination of underarousal and overarousal causes anxiety and depression as well as ADHD.

Instabilities in certain rhythms can be correlated with tics, obsessive-compulsive disorder, aggressive behaviour, rage, bruxism, panic attacks, bipolar disorder, migraines, narcolepsy, epilepsy, sleep apnoea, vertigo, tinnitus, norexia/bulimia, suicidal ideation and behaviour, PMS, multiple chemical sensitivities, diabetes, hypoglycaemia and explosive behaviour.

The brain responds to inputs at a certain frequency or frequencies. The computer can create wave-form patterns or certain frequencies that compare with the mind's neural signals in terms of mind patterns. If people can control their mind patterns, they can enter different states of being (mental relaxation, study, etc.).

So what happens when the mind is entrained with a sound or vibration that reflects the thought patterns? When the mind responds to certain frequencies and behaves as a resonator, is there a harmonic frequency that the mind vibrates to or can attune to? What does the study of harmonic resonance, sound or vibration have to do with the brain's frequency waves?

Sound waves are examples of periodicity, of rhythm. Sound is measured in cycles per second (hertz or Hz). Each cycle of a wave is, in reality, a single pulse of sound. The average range of hearing for the human ear is somewhere between 16 Hz and 20,000 Hz. We cannot hear extremely low frequencies, but we can perceive them as rhythmic.

Entrainment is the process of synchronisation, where vibrations of one object will cause the vibrations of another object to oscillate at the same rate. External rhythms can have a direct effect on the psychology and physiology of the listener. Slower tempos from 48 to 70 BPMs have been proven to decrease heart and respiratory rates, thereby altering the predominant brain-wave patterns.

Binaural beats are continuous tones of subtly different frequencies, delivered to each ear independently in stereo via headphones. If the left channel's pitch is 100 cycles per second and the right channel's pitch is 108 cycles per second, the difference between the two equals 8 cycles per second. When these sounds are combined, they produce a pulsing tone that waxes and wanes in a "wah wah" rhythm.

Binaural beats are not an external sound; rather, they are subsonic frequencies heard within the brain itself. These frequencies are created as both hemispheres work simultaneously to hear sounds that are pitch-differed by key mathematical intervals (window frequencies). The brain waves respond to these oscillating tones by following them (entrainment), and both hemispheres begin to work together. Communication between the two sides of the brain is associated with flashes of creativity, insight and wisdom.

Alpha-wave biofeedback is considered a consciousness self-regulation technique, while alpha-frequency binaural beat stimulation (frequency-following response) is a passive management technique where cortical potentials entrain to or resonate at the frequency of an external stimulus. Through the self-regulation of specific cortical rhythms, we begin to control those aspects of consciousness associated with that rhythm. When the goal is alpha, either in meditation or in biofeedback, it means entraining with the primary SR.
Published in NEWS Archives
Saturday, 11 January 2014 15:34

Page 4: Freakscience - Lsd Therapy

Here you will be informed about the freaky alternative science facts and researches from all over the World and Outer Space. We will publish our researches in alternative science field to open some of the main mysteries of the Humanity:
 
Why Doctors Can't Give You LSD (But Maybe They Should)
 

When David Nichols earned a Ph.D in medicinal chemistry from the University of Iowa in 1973 by studying psychedelics, he thought he would continue studying hallucinogens indefinitely. "I thought I would work on it for the rest of my life," he says.

His timing was less than fortuitous. In 1970, the year after Nichols started grad school, Richard Nixon signed into law the Controlled Substances Act, designed to clamp down on the manufacture and distribution of drugs in the U.S. The act classified hallucinogenic substances like LSD, DMT, psilocybin (the psychedelic alkaloid in mushrooms) and mescaline as Schedule I substances--the most restrictive use category, reserved for drugs with high potential for abuse and no accepted medical use. Marijuana was also placed in this category, and 15 years later when ecstasy came onto the scene, MDMA was emergency-classified as a Schedule I substance as well. By contrast, cocaine, opium and morphine are Schedule II substances, meaning they can be prescribed by a doctor.

Despite some promising results from trials of psychedelics in treating alcoholism, psychiatric conditions and modeling mental illness, by the early '70s, the government had tightened control of Schedule I substances, even for research. It's only now that we're starting to return to the notion that these drugs could be medicine.

If you wanted to kill your career, you did research on psychedelics.
Starting in the early '90s, and as more scientists prove it's feasible, increasingly in the last decade, researchers have been approved to conduct clinical trials with human subjects, and there are promising results showing that substances like MDMA could be useful in treating depression and curing PTSD, and that classical psychedelics like psilocybin and LSD could be a way to soothe anxiety in the terminally ill, treat alcoholism and more. But it's still far from an easy field to break into.

***

In 1938, a Swiss chemist named Albert Hofmann synthesized LSD for the first time while studying ergots, a type of fungus. Though the pharmaceutical company that he worked for, Sandoz, didn't have any interest in the compound, Hofmann found himself inexplicably drawn to it. Five years later, in the spring of 1943, he synthesized it again, noticing that it seemed to have unusual properties: After accidentally absorbing small amounts through his fingertips one day in the lab, Hofmann had to leave work early, under the effects of what he called "a not unpleasant intoxicated-like condition." A few days later, he experimented with taking what he thought was a small dose of LSD, about 250 micrograms (a common dose now is more on the order of 100 micrograms), and proceeded to trip out of his mind, an experience he describes in his book LSD: My Problem Child.

Thinking that it could have medical uses, Hofmann and fellow researchers at Sandoz research laboratories began testing LSD in animals, and in 1947, the first paper looking at psychiatric LSD use in was published. Researchers saw in acid the potential to model psychotic disorders in healthy brains--a way for psychiatrists to induce in themselves the kinds of sensations their patients experienced as a result of mental illness. It could also be a way to break down boundaries, freeing the mind so patients could open up in psychotherapy.

Despite its current reputation, LSD wasn't just for the Beatles and California hippies, it was seen as "an invaluable weapon to psychiatrists," as Time magazine called it in 1955. Research varied widely in legitimacy, but LSD was tested on an estimated 40,000 people around the world between 1950 and 1963.

The CIA saw insidious potential in LSD: They thought it could be a route to mind control.
In 1953, a pair of Canadian researchers tried to use high doses of LSD to scare alcoholics into sobriety, but discovered it instead produced a kind of mystical, near-religious experience for them that convinced them to stop drinking. They were onto something: A 2012 meta-analysis of LSD-alcoholism trials found though many of the trials from the late 1960s were too small to produce statistically-viable results on their own, in conjunction, they showed consistent, positive results.

At the same time, the government was also dipping its toes in an acid-filled pool. The CIA saw a more insidious potential in LSD: They thought it could be a truth serum or a route to mind control. Josef Mengele and other Nazi doctors had experimented on concentration camp prisoners with mescaline and other psychotropic drugs.In the midst of Cold War paranoia, the U.S. Navy thought mescaline could be used to get people to reveal information against their will. When the experiments ultimately proved unsuccessful, the government turned to Albert Hofmann's new wonder drug, already beginning to emerge as a psychiatric juggernaut.

LSD Blotter
 
DEA

Between 1953 and 1964, in a project called MKULTRA, the CIA experimented with LSD on unwitting civilians, prisoners, government employees and even its own agents, in a manner that Senator Edward Kennedy later described to Congress as making "little scientific sense." It came to the point where "surprise acid trips became something of an occupational hazard among CIA operatives," as Martin Lee and Bruce Shlain describe in Acid Dreams.

The agents monitoring the experiments weren't scientists, and at least one person died after jumping out of a window under the influence of LSD. By the time the Senate held hearings on MKULTRA in 1977, many documents related to the operation had been destroyed on the orders of then-CIA Director Richard Helms in 1973.

Disturbed by the CIA's abuses, Congress restricted the use of hallucinogens like LSD to scientific research in 1965. By that point, the tide was already turning against psychedelics, in part due to unethical behavior (referred to by one contemporary researcher as "excessive enthusiasm") by some of the scientists studying them. Timothy Leary, a psychologist and the psychedelic advocate of "Turn on, tune in, drop out" fame," lost his appointment at Harvard University in 1963 due to the administration's concerns that he and other Harvard Psilocybin Project researchers were sloppy in their scientific approach, even conducting investigations under the influence of psilocybin themselves, and after giving an undergraduate student psilocybin off-campus.

Political motives, too, added to the pressure to halt hallucinogenic research like Leary's, even though it had been surprisingly successful in some aspects, like in reducing prisoner recidivism with psilocybin. LSD, psilocybin and other psychedelics were playing a vital role in a rising countercultural movement, as the forthcoming Albert Hofmann biography Mystic Chemist points out. They were agents of peace and love in a time when the government desperately needed soldiers for the Vietnam War, a war young people were increasingly refusing to serve in. In 1966 the U.S., soon followed by the rest of the world, made LSD illegal. Even the most promising psychedelic research slowed, and by the mid-70s, stopped.

***

This was the world David Nichols faced when he emerged from his Ph.D. program brandishing a dissertation on psychedelic drugs. "If you wanted to kill your research career in academics, you did research on psychedelics," Nichols remembers. To some extent, that's still true, because psychedelic research remains difficult to fund. As a distinguished professor at Purdue University, Nichols received funding from the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) for 30 years to look into how exactly how these drugs work in the body. But since the organization concentrates specifically on stopping drug use, he couldn't study their potential medical properties.

As psychiatrist Charles Grob wrote in a 1994 article in the Yearbook for Ethnomedicine and the Study of Consciousness:

Together with revelations of unethical activities of psychiatric researchers under contract to military intelligence and the CIA, the highly publicized and controversial behaviors of hallucinogen enthusiasts led to the repression of efforts to formally investigate these substances. For the next twenty-five years research with hallucinogens assumed pariah status within academic psychiatry, virtually putting an end to formal dialogue and debate.

In the early '90s, Nichols was at a scientific meeting telling a story he had told a million times: It's too bad there's not any clinical research, research with human subjects, with psychedelics. "You could do it, but you need private money." He decided he could find that private money, even though he didn't have the medical degree necessary to do clinical research himself. Along with Grob and others, he founded the Heffter Research Institute in 1993 to do legitimate, rigorous scientific research on psychedelics.

For many years when the FDA got a protocol to study psychedelics in humans, they just put it on a shelf somewhere.
Grob, a professor at the UCLA Medical School, was one of the first researchers to get FDA approval to conduct a research study on the therapeutic effects of psychedelics since research had slowed to a halt 35 years earlier. He was interested in using psilocybin (a drug with less political baggage than LSD or even MDMA) to ease the anxieties and depression in cancer patients with limited life expectancy.

So what changed? According to Nichols, now an adjunct professor at the University of North Carolina Chapel Hill, there wasn't an abrupt change in regulations, but just a slow shift in attitudes. "For many years when [the FDA] got a protocol to study psychedelics in humans, they just put it on a shelf somewhere."

Animal-based research went on, because the government was still interested in figuring out how these chemicals functioned, but "the presumption was that was impossible to do with humans," according to Mark Geyer, another Heffter Research Institute founder who has been studying the basic neuroscience of psychedelics on animals for almost 30 years with funding from the National Institute on Drug Abuse. Even if the FDA had been willing to approve psychedelic trials with humans, there probably weren't many applications being submitted, because researchers assumed it couldn't be done.

"The goal wasn't to stop scientists, the goal was to stop street use… but the side effect of that was that even legitimate research was curtailed," Geyer explains. "It turns out, as I understand… there was no law on the books that forbade such research."

According to Nichols, sometime in the early '90s, a turnover in leadership loosened the agency's attitude toward human-based trials with psychedelics. After years of lobbying the federal government for permission, psychiatrist Rick Strassman was able to do a study with human subjects of the psychedelic compound DMT.

"Legitimate human research with hallucinogenic drugs, although of great theoretical and practical interest, involves daunting regulatory hurdles that have discouraged investigators from attempting such work," Strassman complained in a 1991 article for the Journal of Psychoactive Drugs. Nevertheless, his study, involving 60 volunteers and hundreds of doses of DMT, didn't bring the world crashing around the FDA's ears, opening up the possibility that the agency might approve more clinical trials with psychedelics.

With the Heffter Research Institute, Grob designed and received FDA approval for a small trial to administer psilocybin to 12 terminal cancer patients between 30 and 60 years old. The patients came in for two sessions a month apart -- but everyone received a dose of psilocybin at one of the two sessions. "We didn't feel it was ethical to deny anyone the active treatment because they had limited life expectancy," Grob explains.

Because it was the first study to use psilocybin in decades, the FDA approved a very low dosage for the study. "People were not floridly hallucinating," according to Grob, but the effect was instead more like a waking dream. After a six-month follow-up, the subjects showed a significant, lasting reduction in anxiety. The study paved the way for other research into using psilocybin to ease end-of-life anxieties at Johns Hopkins University and NYU.

Psychedelic Medicine

A patient receives MDMA-assisted psychotherapy to treat PTSD during an ongoing study in South Carolina.

Courtesy MAPS
***

Though Strassman proved clinical research to be both legal and possible, it's still not an easy process for scientists. That's part of the reason groups like the Heffter Research Institute and the Santa Cruz, Calif.-based Multidisciplinary Association for Psychedelic Studies (MAPS) exist: They have the resources and the motivation to wade through seemingly endless bureaucratic hurdles to move studies forward. The Heffter Research Institute can advise a researcher on what has worked in previous trials, and they provide a peer-review process for proposals. If their protocol is approved, the organization seeks private funding for it.

"It takes years to get all the approvals," as Grob says. His first study took a particularly long time to receive approval, though now that multiple studies have established safety parameters and feasibility for these types of trials, the process is somewhat smoother.

You have to really want to work with hallucinogens.
For studies involving people, not only does the research have to be approved by the university's institutional review board, as do most clinical trials, but it also has to be approved by the FDA and the researcher must be licensed to store and work with the drug by the DEA. The DEA requires intense security when it comes to storing the drugs, lest any resourceful college student try to relieve your lab of its drugs, and the licenses are specifically issued to one researcher in one lab--if you move rooms, you'll have to get the DEA's approval.

In clinical work, the drugs have to be manufactured in a specific pharmaceutical-grade manner to ensure quality. Though there aren't the same manufacturing standards, you also need the same Schedule I license to work with animals as you do with humans, even though less than one human dose of MDMA, for example, could supply a study with hundreds of mice.

"You have to really want to work with these," says Nichols, whose lab at Purdue made much of the clinical-grade hallucinogens for other researchers' trials. "Anybody who's a good chemist could probably do it, but there's no money in it."

Currently, according to the DEA, it takes about 9 months to get FDA and DEA approval for a license to research Schedule I substances, though researchers are a little more skeptical. "The DEA's not in a hurry to grant these licenses," according to Nichols.

Only 349 scientists have them, and that number is on the downswing: Three years ago, there were 550 licenses in the U.S. Nichols suggests that this could be a result of the DEA cracking down on researchers with extraneous licenses. In the past, Schedule I licenses had been renewed on a yearly basis without much fuss, but in recent years the agency has required Nichols to submit his current protocol and justify why he still needs the license.

***

Part of the problem with studying psychedelics--and other illicit drugs, such as marijuana--for medical use, is simply that they're not high-tech, and no pharmaceutical company needs or wants to get involved. There's no money in it for them. Though drugs like LSD and psilocybin are relatively easy to make in the lab, as MAPS founder Rick Doblin pointed out in a 2012 interview, "psychedelics are off-patent, can't be monopolized, and compete with other psychiatric medications that people take daily."

"My colleagues say to me, in these days of nanotechology and targeted therapy, what are you doing?" says Donald Abrams, a professor of medicine at the University of California, San Francisco who has done research on medical marijuana. "We live in the 21st century. Studying plants as medicine is not where most investigators are putting their money."

And without the outside funding to continue researching, a scientist's career goes nowhere, so even fewer scientists want to get involved.

Organizations like the Heffter Research Institute and MAPS are funded by private donors and don't have the money to do the expensive, large-scale human trials that could show sound results one way or the other. Nichols hopes that federal funding will be available to do larger studies with psychedelics sometime in the next decade, if the ongoing smaller trials can show efficacy. "There's movement toward accepting the possibility that these [psychedelic substances] are useful and not all that dangerous," he says.

The stigma persists, though. "It's still harder for somebody to get involved in psychedelic research, in terms of professionally and funding," says MAPS communications director Brad Burge.

And although psychedelic research has made some headway in England and Switzerland, roadblocks against psychedelic research exist abroad, too. The first clinical trial using psilocybin to treat depression stalled in early April because U.K. regulations require drugs used in clinical trials to be made under strict Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) standards, and the researchers, from Imperial College London, have been unable to find a company to manufacture psilocybin at that standard.

"The law for the control of drugs like psilocybin as a Schedule 1 Class A drug makes it almost impossible to use them for research," Nutt said in a press statement. "The reason we haven't started the study is because finding companies who could manufacture the drug and who are prepared to go through the regulatory hoops to get the license, which can take up to a year and triple the price, is proving very difficult. The whole situation is bedeviled by this primitive, old-fashioned attitude that Schedule 1 drugs could never have therapeutic potential, and so they have to be made impossible to access."

There's a growing generation of students and researchers who aren't scared of studying the drugs.Yet despite the hurdles, for some researchers, the potential to cure some of our most troubling woes--like alcoholism, depression and PTSD--make the headaches of doing legitimate psychedelic science worthwhile. Later this week, around 1600 scientists from around the world devoted to this research will descend upon Oakland, Calif. to attend Psychedelic Science 2013, a three-day conference put on in part by MAPS and the Heffter Research Institute.

As Burge notes, the stigma that has haunted psychedelic science could be changing as a new generation of scientists arrive on the scene. "There's a generation of researchers and therapists that worked in the 1960s and '70s," he says, "but also there's this huge and growing generation of students and researchers who aren't scared of studying the drugs...looking for treatments to our most debilitating epidemics."

Friday, 03 January 2014 20:45

Page 4: Freakscience - Energy-Matter

Here you will be informed about the freaky alternative science facts and researches from all over the World and Outer Space. We will publish our researches in alternative science field to open some of the main mysteries of the Humanity:

UNITING SCIENCE AND SPIRITUALITY.

We think that is is a very important aspect of our relations between the Nature and the Human.

Energy-Matter

Perhaps the most important discovery ever to made in the world of physics was Einstein's theory of relativity and his famous equation E = mc2. The equation reveals that 1 kilogram of matter corresponds to 25,000,000,000 kWh of energy, which could power a town for 3 years or a car for 100,000 years. The equation shows that energy and matter are different manifestations of the same thing. It shows that there is only one substance "energy-matter", which has a dual nature and can manifest as energy or matter. The same can be said about light, which can either display the behaviour of a wave or the behaviour of a particle. This does not mean that light changes back and forth between waves and particles at will, but that it is in some intermediate state which can express both aspects simultaneously. It is possible that sub-atomic particles of matter are actually standing waves of energy. Low frequency waves vibrate slowly and behave like matter, and high frequency waves vibrate rapidly and behave like energy. This clearly has some similarities with "string theory" where everything is believed to be composed of incredibly minute (10-33 centimetres long, or about a millionth of a billionth of a billionth of a billionth of a centimetre) strings or loops of energy-matter vibrating in ten dimensions. Our brains can only comprehend four dimensions – the three spatial dimensions (length, width and height) and one temporal dimension (time). So there may be six hidden spatial dimensions. The cosmologies of eastern religions are based around seven planes of existence with our physical plane being the lowest. Of the six higher planes, some are said to be composed of subtle matter and some of pure energy. So it seems that modern physics is beginning to discover what has been known in the East for millennia.

Higher Dimensions

As we have just discussed, some of the current theories of fundamental physics state that there are hidden spatial dimensions beyond the three that we live in. It is impossible to even imagine what a higher dimension would be like, but to get some idea think of Dr Who's TARDIS, which was bigger on the inside than it was on the outside. Or you could imagine a house with a special room that is much bigger than the whole house – the room is so big in fact, it is the size of a mansion. Then imagine that this mansion also has special rooms which are the size of even bigger mansions, and so on. I believe this is what Christ was referring to when he said, "In my father's house are many mansions" (John 14:2). We know that God lives in heaven, so Christ is saying that the heavens are multi-dimensional and that each higher realm is more expansive than the last. Think about it – could you come up with a simpler description to explain a multi-dimensional universe in a non-scientific manner to the people of 2000 years ago?

Missing Matter

Studies on the rotation of stars around galaxies have shown that 96% of the universe is unaccounted for. In theory, stars on the outer rim of a galaxy should not be able to rotate as fast as those near the centre, because the increased centrifugal force would cause them to fly off into outer space. However, it has been found that stars on the rim of a galaxy do rotate just as fast as those in the centre, which contradicts the laws of physics! So scientists had to come up with a new theory that would take this into account. The mass of all the visible matter within a galaxy only provides 4% of the gravitational field that is required to stop it from literally ripping itself apart. So why aren't all the galaxies flying apart? In the mid 1970s physicists and astronomers started looking for the missing matter of the universe. They called it "dark matter" because it is not visible. More recently the discovery of vast spherical energy auras, which totally encircle the galactic disc, indicates the presence of a large mass of dark matter and dark energy outside the galactic nucleus. Dark energy is a hypothetical form of energy which permeates all of space and has strong negative pressure, which explains the accelerating expansion of the universe. It is a relatively new concept that forms part of the "Standard Model", which states that the universe is composed of approximately 4% visible matter, 23% dark matter and 73% dark energy. This dark matter and energy is the energy-matter of the aforementioned higher planes of Hindu and Buddhist cosmologies and the hidden spatial dimensions of string theory.

Quantum Foam

Quantum foam, also known as space-time foam, is a concept in quantum physics proposed by Nobel physicist John Wheeler in 1955 to describe the microscopic sea of bubbling energy-matter. The foam is what space-time would look like if we could zoom in to a scale of 10-33 centimetres (the Planck length). At this microscopic scale particles of matter appear to be nothing more than standing waves of energy. Wheeler proposed that minute wormholes measuring 10-33 centimetres could exist in the quantum foam, which some physicists theorise could even be hyper-spatial links to other dimensions. The hyper-spatial nature of the quantum foam could account for principles like the transmission of light and the flow of time. Various scientists believe that quantum foam is an incredibly powerful source of zero-point energy, and it has been estimated that one cubic centimetre of empty space contains enough energy to boil all the world's oceans. If we could describe a microscopic standing wave pattern that appeared particle-like and incorporated a vortex within its structure, we might have a theory that could unite all the current variants in modern physics. Figure 2a appears to meet these criteria. It is a drawing of a subatomic particle reproduced from Occult Chemistry by Charles Leadbeater and Annie Besant which was first published in 1909, although a similar diagram was published in a theosophical journal in 1895. Leadbeater and Besant explain that each subatomic particle is composed of ten loops which circulate energy from higher dimensions. Back in 1895, they knew that physical matter was composed from "strings" – 10 years before Einstein's theory of relativity and 80 years before string theory. The structure of energy-matter may have been known for over 100 years, yet completely ignored by conventional science. Figure 2a may be the "holy grail" that physicists have long been searching for – see Chapter 5 for further details.

 

Subatomic Particle

Figure 2a - Subatomic Particle

We Are All One

The universe is believed to have sprung into existence from a singularity (a single point). The singularity expanded to become the universe, so everything still remains a part of that singularity. With this interpretation the paradoxes of non-locality and faster-than-light communication become meaningless because everything is connected and everything is one – a concept that is by no means new to spirituality.

The Big Bang and Cosmic Inflation

Cosmic inflation theory states that the universe is not expanding into space; rather space itself is expanding, dragging stars and galaxies in its wake. A simple analogy is that of a balloon, representing space-time, with some dots drawn on it to represent the galaxies. When the balloon is inflated the dots move further apart. So the big bang wasn't matter exploding to fill empty space – it was matter, energy and space expanding together into an endless void of nothingness. But where did all the matter come from? The theory of relativity states that matter can neither be created nor destroyed, so if it wasn't created it must have been transformed into matter from energy. But where did the energy come from? It must have always been there and was just reawakened or recycled in the big bang. Ancient eastern religious texts state that the universe goes through cycles of "in-breaths" and "out-breaths". Generally with an explosion there is an initial rapid expansion followed by a gradual slowing down. Not so with the universe – its expansion is accelerating, 14 billion years after the Big Bang! The reason for the acceleration seems to be an increase in the quantity of dark energy, which produces a vacuum effect resulting in evermore rapid expansion. This subsequent influx of energy from a higher source is clearly not what we would expect from a typical explosion. So the Big Bang appears to be under some sort of external control – perhaps the mind of God? If we stay with the assumption that dark energy exists in higher dimensions, it seems that there has been a rush of energy descending into the physical dimension (the out-breath) and that at some point in the future it will return to the higher dimensions and the physical universe will contract or dissolve (the in-breath).

Beyond the Universe

What existed before the universe began, and what, if anything, will exist after the universe ends? Scientists believe that our universe exists within a metaverse (meta-universe). The metaverse is timeless and eternal because it is an absolute void and totally unmanifest. Kabbalah has a term that exactly corresponds to the metaverse: "Ain" is the infinite nothingness; the void; non-existence; the eternal empty background; the zero. The universe is widely believed by scientists to have originated from a singularity, a single point that contains the infinite potential of the universe. Once again Kabbalah has an equivalent term: "Ain Soph" is the limitless (potential); the absolute source of creation; the one. The Hindu term "Brahman" has the same meaning: God unmanifest; the transcendent reality that is the source of all being in this universe; the singularity from which "all that is" originated, including space and time. Our universe has been compared to foam floating on a sea of zero-point energy – an energy so enormous that many physicists ignore it and leave it out of their equations. Zero-point energy is believed to exist at every point in the universe, even in empty space, yet is currently undetectable because it seems to lie just beyond our reality. No prizes for guessing that Kabbalah also has a term to describe it: "Ain Soph Aur" is the infinite light; the infinite energy that manifests our universe. The ancient terms directly correspond to those used in modern physics, so once again science is catching up with ancient spiritual knowledge.

Gravity and Magnetism

Some physicists have suggested that the force of gravity is much weaker than the other forces because it leaks out into hidden dimensions, so that we only feel part of its effect. I suspect the reverse may be true and that gravity originates in a higher dimension and leaks down into our reality, because if it originated here "gravitons" (theoretical particles) would be real and detectable rather than just hypothetical. Science finds it impossible to explain non-physical phenomena such as magnetic fields in physical terms. Magnetic fields are clearly not based upon physical particles because, like gravity, they exert a force even in a vacuum (where no physical particles are present), so scientists have to come up with imaginary particles like "virtual photons" to explain the phenomenon. As with gravity, I believe that magnetic forces originate in higher dimensions and only their effects can be felt in our physical dimension. Extra dimensions are the only logical way to explain all non-physical phenomena.

Black Hole Universe

Physicist Paul Wesson and his team at the University of Waterloo in Canada have calculated that our entire universe could be the inside of a higher-dimensional black hole. The theory provides a better description of the beginning of the universe than the big bang because it accounts for the creation of matter. In Wesson's model, energy from the higher-dimensional universe streams down from the higher universe and condenses to form the matter of our universe. This is consistent with the esoteric system of creation which is fully described in Chapter 5. Wesson's model also predicts that a collapsing universe would bounce back just before it became a singularity, and begin expanding again. This is consistent with the Hindu belief that the universe goes through cycles of "in-breaths" and "out-breaths". Wesson is now considering the idea of "Russian doll universes", with each world embedded in another higher dimensional world, which is exactly how esoterics describe the universe

 

Monday, 25 February 2013 05:51

How Time Travel Work? part4

We've blown through black holes and wormholes, but there's yet another possible means of time traveling via theoretic cosmic phenomena.
For this scheme, we turn to physicist  J. Richard Gott, who introduced the idea of cosmic string back in 1991. As the name suggests, these are string like objects that some scientists believe were formed in the early universe.
These strings may weave throughout the entire universe, thinner than an atom and under immense pressure. Naturally, this means they'd pack quite a gravitational pull on anything that passes near them, enabling objects attached to a cosmic string to travel at incredible speeds and benefit from time dilation. By pulling two cosmic strings close together or stretching one string close to a black hole, it might be possible to warp space-time enough to create what's called a closed time like curve.

Using the gravity produced by the two cosmic strings (or the string and black hole), a spaceship theoretically could propel itself into the past. To do this, it would loop around the cosmic strings.

Quantum strings are highly speculative, however. Gott himself said that in order to travel back in time even one year, it would take a loop of string that contained half the mass-energy of an entire galaxy. In other words, you'd have to split half the atoms in the galaxy to power your time machine. And, as with any time machine, you couldn't go back farther than the point at which the time machine was created. 
Oh yes, and then there are the time paradoxes. 
 
Time Travel Paradoxes
As we mentioned before, the concept of traveling into the past becomes a bit murky the second causality rears its head. Cause comes before effect, at least in this universe, which manages to muck up even the best-laid time traveling plans.
For starters, if you traveled back in time 200 years, you'd emerge in a time before you were born. Think about that for a second. In the flow of time, the effect (you) would exist before the cause (your birth).

To better understand what we're dealing with here, consider the famous grandfather paradox. You're a time-traveling assassin, and your target just happens to be your own grandfather. So you pop through the nearest wormhole and walk up to a spry 18-year-old version of your father's father. You raise your laser blaster, but just what happens when you pull the trigger?

Think about it. You haven't been born yet. Neither has your father. If you kill your own grandfather in the past, he'll never have a son. That son will never have you, and you'll never happen to take that job as a time-traveling assassin. You wouldn't exist to pull the trigger, thus negating the entire string of events. We call this an inconsistent causal loop.

On the other hand, we have to consider the idea of a consistent causal loop. While equally thought-provoking, this theoretical model of time travel is paradox free. According to physicist Paul Davies, such a loop might play out like this: A math professor travels into the future and steals a groundbreaking math theorem. The professor then gives the theorem to a promising student. Then, that promising student grows up to be the very person from whom the professor stole the theorem to begin with.

Then there's the post-selected model of time travel, which involves distorted probability close to any paradoxical situation What does this mean? Well, put yourself in the shoes of the time-traveling assassin again. This time travel model would make your grandfather virtually death proof. You can pull the trigger, but the laser will malfunction. Perhaps a bird will poop at just the right moment, but some quantum fluctuation will occur to prevent a paradoxical situation from taking place.
But then there's another possibility: The future or past you travel into might just be a parallel universe. Think of it as a separate sandbox: You can build or destroy all the castles you want in it, but it doesn't affect your home sandbox in the slightest. So if the past you travel into exists in a separate timeline, killing your grandfather in cold blood is no big whoop. Of course, this might mean that every time jaunt would land you in a new parallel universe and you might never return to your original sandbox. 

 

Published in NEWS Archives
Saturday, 23 February 2013 06:34

How Time Travel Work? part3

Black Holes and Kerr Rings
Circle a black hole long enough, and gravitational time dilation will take you into the future. But what would happen if you flew right into the maw of this cosmic titan? Most scientists agree the black hole would probably crush you, but one unique variety of black holes might not: the Kerr black hole or Kerr ring.

In 1963, New Zealand mathematician Roy Kerr proposed the first realistic theory for a rotating black hole. The concept hinges on neutron stars, which are massive collapsed stars, the size of Manhattan but with the mass of Earth's sun [Kerr postulated that if dying stars collapsed into a rotating ring of neutron stars, their centrifugal force would prevent them from turning into a singularity. Since the black hole wouldn't have a singularity, Kerr believed it would be safe to enter without fear of the infinite gravitational force at its center.
If Kerr black holes exist, scientists speculate that we might pass through them and exit through a white hole. Think of this as the exhaust end of a black hole. Instead of pulling everything into its gravitational force, the white hole would push everything out and away from it -- perhaps into another time or even another universe.
Kerr black holes are purely theoretical, but if they do exist they offer the adventurous time traveler a one-way trip into the past or future. And while a tremendously advanced civilization might develop a means of calibrating such a method of time travel, there's no telling where or when a "wild" Kerr black hole might leave you.

Imagine space as a curved two-dimensional plane. Wormholes like this could form when two masses apply enough force on space-time to create a tunnel connecting distant points.


 
Wormholes
Theoretical Kerr black holes aren't the only possible cosmic shortcut to the past or future. As made popular by everything from "Star Trek: Deep Space Nine" to "Donnie Darko," there's also the equally theoretical Einstein-Rosen bridge to consider. But of course you know this better as a wormhole.

Einstein's general theory of relativity allows for the existence of wormholes since it states that any mass curves space-time. To understand this curvature, think about two people holding a bed sheet up and stretching it tight. If one person were to place a baseball on the bed sheet, the weight of the baseball would roll to the middle of the sheet and cause the sheet to curve at that point. Now, if a marble were placed on the edge of the same bed sheet it would travel toward the baseball because of the curve.

In this simplified example, space is depicted as a two-dimensional plane rather than a four-dimensional one. Imagine that this sheet is folded over, leaving a space between the top and bottom. Placing the baseball on the top side will cause a curvature to form. If an equal mass were placed on the bottom part of the sheet at a point that corresponds with the location of the baseball on the top, the second mass would eventually meet with the baseball. This is similar to how wormholes might develop.

In space, masses that place pressure on different parts of the universe could combine eventually to create a kind of tunnel. This tunnel would, in theory, join two separate times and allow passage between them. Of course, it's also possible that some unforeseen physical or quantum property prevents such a wormhole from occurring. And even if they do exist, they may be incredibly unstable.

According to astrophysicist Stephen Hawking, wormholes may exist in quantum foam, the smallest environment in the universe. Here, tiny tunnels constantly blink in and out of existence, momentarily linking separate places and time like an ever-changing game of "Chutes and Ladders."

Wormholes such as these might prove too small and too brief for human time travel, but might we one day learn to capture, stabilize and enlarge them? Certainly, says Hawking, provided you're prepared for some feedback. If we were to artificially prolong the life of a tunnel through folded space-time, a radiation feedback loop might occur, destroying the time tunnel in the same way audio feedback can wreck a speaker.

The right cosmic anomaly could turn any spaceship into a time machine.
Published in NEWS Archives
Friday, 22 February 2013 06:04

How Time Travel Work? part2

Time Travel into the Future 
If you want to advance through the years a little faster than the next person, you'll need to exploit space-time. Global positioning satellites pull this off every day, accruing an extra third-of-a-billionth of a second daily. Time passes faster in orbit, because satellites are farther away from the mass of the Earth. Down here on the surface, the planet's mass drags on time and slows it down in small measures. 
We call this effect gravitational time dilation. According to Einstein's theory of general relativity, gravity is a curve in space-time and astronomers regularly observe this phenomenon when they study light moving near a sufficiently massive object. Particularly large suns, for instance, can cause an otherwise straight beam of light to curve in what we call the gravitational lensing effect. 
What does this have to do with time? Remember: Any event that occurs in the universe has to involve both space and time. Gravity doesn't just pull on space; it also pulls on time.     
You wouldn't be able to notice minute changes in the flow of time, but a sufficiently massive object would make a huge difference -- say, like the super massive black hole Sagittarius A at the center of our galaxy. Here, the mass of 4 million suns exists as a single, infinitely dense point, known as a singularity Circle this black hole for a while (without falling in) and you'd experience time at half the Earth rate. In other words, you'd round out a five-year journey to discover an entire decade had passed on Earth Speed also plays a role in the rate at which we experience time. Time passes more slowly the closer you approach the unbreakable cosmic speed limit we call the speed of light. For instance, the hands of a clock in a speeding train move more slowly than those of a stationary clock. A human passenger wouldn't feel the difference, but at the end of the trip the speeding clock would be slowed by billionths of a second. If such a train could attain 99.999 percent of light speed, only one year would pass onboard for every 223 years back at the train station.
In effect, this hypothetical commuter would have traveled into the future.
 But what about the past? Could the fastest starship imaginable turn back the clock?

 
  Time Travel Into the Past 
We've established that time travel into the future happens all the time. Scientists have proven it in experiments, and the idea is a fundamental aspect of Einstein's theory of relativity. You'll make it to the future; it's just a question of how fast the trip will be.    But what about travel into the past? A glance into the night sky should supply an answer. 
The Milky Way galaxy is roughly 100,000 light-years wide, so light from its more distant stars can take thousands upon thousands of years to reach Earth. Glimpse that light, and you're essentially looking back in time. When astronomers measure the cosmic microwave background radiation, they stare back more than 10 billion years into a primordial cosmic age. But can we do better than this? 
There's nothing in Einstein's theory that precludes time travel into the past, but the very premise of pushing a button and going back to yesterday violates the law of causality, or cause and effect. One event happens in our universe and it leads to yet another in an endless one-way string of events. In every instance, the cause occurs before the effect. Just try to imagine a different reality, say, in which a murder victim dies of his or her gunshot wound before being shot. It violates reality as we know it; thus, many scientists dismiss time travel into the past as impossibility. 
Some scientists have proposed the idea of using faster-than-light travel to journey back in time. After all, if time slows as an object approaches the speed of light, then might exceeding that speed cause time to flow backward? Of course, as an object nears the speed of light, its relativistic mass increases until, at the speed of light, it becomes infinite. Accelerating an infinite mass any faster than that is impossible. Warp speed technology could theoretically cheat the universal speed limit by propelling a bubble of space-time across the universe, but even this would come with colossal, far-future energy costs. 
But what if time travel into the past and future depends less on speculative space propulsion technology and more on existing cosmic phenomena? Set a course for the black hole.

 
What's on the other side of a black hole?
To Be Continued....
 
Published in NEWS Archives
Thursday, 21 February 2013 06:19

How Time Travel Work?

All right, freaks and other strange people of planet Trance. After the day off, caused by the celebration of the birthday of our Chief Editor, we want to open a huge, completely TOP SECRET!:
We have built a Time Machine!!! Ok, we did not finish it yet, but on 25 February it will be all ready to operate and to bring  all visitors of Chronos Conceptual Multimedia Performance in Panorama Olympia Hall trough all history of the Earth from  the genesis of the planet until the far future of humanity.

The Time travelling is impossible, you might say. You are so wrong.  
 
How Time Travel Works

Time is malleable. 
 Time Travel. novel an Time travel is no longer regarded as strictly science fiction. For years the concept of time travel has been the topic of science fiction novels and movies, and has been pondered by great scientists throughout history. Einstein’s theories of general and special relativity can be used to actually prove that time travel is possible.

We define time travel to mean departure from a certain place and time followed (from the traveller's point of view) by arrival at the same place at an earlier (from the sedentary observer's point of view) or later time.   Time travel paradoxes arise from the fact that departure occurs after arrival according to one observer and before arrival according to another.   In the terminology of special relativity time travel implies that the timelike ordering of events is not invariant.  
This violates our intuitive notions of causality.  
However, intuition is not an infallible guide, so we must be careful.  
Is time travel really impossible, or is it merely another phenomenon where "impossible" means "nature is weirder than we think?" The answer is more interesting than you might think. 
  From millennium-skipping Victorians to phone booth-hopping teenagers, the term time travel often summons our most fantastic visions of what it means to move through the fourth dimension. But of course you don't need a time machine or a fancy wormhole to jaunt through the years.

As you've probably noticed, we're all constantly engaged in the act of time travel. At its most basic level, time is the rate of change in the universe -- and like it or not, we are constantly undergoing change. We age, the planets move around the sun, and things fall apart.

We measure the passage of time in seconds, minutes, hours and years, but this doesn't mean time flows at a constant rate. Just as the water in a river rushes or slows depending on the size of the channel, time flows at different rates in different places. In other words, time is relative. 
But what causes this fluctuation along our one-way trek from the cradle to the grave? It all comes down to the relationship between time and space. Human beings frolic about in the three spatial dimensions of length, width and depth. Time joins the party as that most crucial fourth dimension. Time can't exist without space, and space can't exist without time. The two exist as one: the space-time continuum. Any event that occurs in the universe has to involve both space and time. 

In this article, we'll look at the real-life; everyday methods of time travel in our universe, as well as some of the more far-fetched methods of dancing through the fourth dimension.
To Be Continued....

 

Published in NEWS Archives

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